Ruminants Press

  • Rumen-protected methionine: a boost for primiparous dairy cows performance

    Methionine is considered the most limiting essential amino acid for ruminants (Schwab & Broderick, 2017). This element has a pivotal role in their productive performance and nitrogen efficiency.
  • Organic acid and plant botanical supplementation in heat-stressed Holstein calves

    Our findings in Holstein calves are early evidence that dietary microencapsulated OA/PB feeding is a means to partially restore feed intake and average daily gain post-weaning when challenged by heat exposure.
  • Effects of heat stress and dietary organic acids and botanicals on hepatic one-carbon metabolism

    Heat stress develops with methyl donor deficiency in parallel with an impaired N metabolism. The supplementation of OA/PB improves the remethylation capacity in the liver. On-going transcriptomic analyses will provide a better understanding of the hepatic metabolism of dairy cows exposed to heat stress.
  • Effects of ambient heat exposure and dietary organic acids and pure botanicals on gut permeability and milk production

    Heat exposure compromises the gastrointestinal barrier and leads to inflammation in non-ruminants. Our results indicate that heat stress increases gut permeability and inflammation markers rapidly and independently of dietary intake.
  • Effects of feeding 2 rumen-protected choline sources during the transition period on Holstein dairy cows performance and blood metabolites

    During the first weeks of lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance, leading to the mobilization of body reserves. This predisposes early lactating cows toward metabolic diseases, such as fatty liver syndrome and ketosis.
  • Phenol-Rich Botanicals Modulate Oxidative Stress and Epithelial Integrity in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    The aim of this study was to screen the activity of different sources of phenol compounds on intestinal oxidation and barrier integrity in vitro.
  • Organic acids and botanicals supplementation on lactation performance in heat-stressed dairy cows

    Twenty multiparous non-pregnant Holstein cows were enrolled in a study with a completely randomized design. Cows were assigned to one of two groups fed a basal diet supplemented with 25g/d of AviPlus®R (TRT) or basal diet supplemented equivalent triglyceride used for microencapsulation (CTR).
  • Intestinal health helps preventing milk loss linked to ketosis and heat stress

    From an economic point of view, the lack of metabolic adaptation at the beginning of lactation (ketosis) and heat stress are two of the most important diseases for dairy cows as they seriously jeopardize the competitiveness of world animal husbandry and significantly reduce its efficiency.
  • Effects of feeding 2 rumen-protected choline sources during the transition period on Holstein dairy cows performance and blood metabolites

    During the first weeks of lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance, leading to the mobilization of body reserves. This predisposes early lactating cows toward metabolic diseases, such as fatty liver syndrome and ketosis.
  • Assessing intestinal health. In vitro and ex vivo gut barrier models of farm animals: benefits and limitations

    The concept of “gut health" is not well defined, but this concept has begun to play a very important role in the field of animal science. However, a clear definition of GIT health and the means by which to measure it are lacking. In vitro and ex vivo models can facilitate these studies, creating well-controlled and repeatable conditions to understand how to improve animal gut health.
  • Heat stress develops with increased total-tract gut permeability, and dietary organic acid and pure botanical supplementation partly restores lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress (HS) conditions and dietary organic acid and pure botanical (OA/PB) supplementation on gut permeability and milk production.
  • Effects of two rumen-protected choline sources during transition period on Holstein dairy cows performance

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of rumen-protected choline (RPC) supplemented from 21 d pre- to 35 d postpartum.
  • Evaluation of a rumen-protected methionine product for lactating dairy cows at 2 concentrations of dietary crude protein

    This study evaluated the effect of a supplemental rumen-protected Met product (Timet; VETAGRO S.p.A.; Reggio Emilia, Italy) on lactation performance and rumen measures of dairy cows fed 2 concentrations of dietary CP.
  • In situ rumen degradability and in vitro intestinal digestibility of rumen-protected methyl donors and lysine

    Rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of rumen-protected (RP) methyl donor and lysine products vary. Our objectives were to evaluate the in situ rumen degradability and in vitro intestinal digestibility of 4 RP products containing choline chloride, dl-methionine, betaine, and/or l-lysine in a triglyceride matrix.
  • Effects of supplementing rumen protected methionine on performance of primiparous dairy cows during Presynch-Ovsynch protocol

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplementing three levels of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) at two levels of protein (14 vs. 16% CP) on reproductive and productive performance in primiparous lactating dairy cows during timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol.
  • Effect of supplemental rumen-protected methionine on reproduction and production of Awassi ewes

    Feeding a rumen-protected methionine (RPM) supplement improved milk production in lactating dairy cows, lactating goats, or ewes. In this study, we hypothesize that feeding RPM would enhance reproduction and production in Awassi ewes.
  • How to improve colostrum quality

    Ruminants placenta avoids immunoglobulins transfer from the mother to the fetus (passive immunity). Calves are not protected against infections until they develop their own active immunity, except for antibodies received through colostrum.
  • Effects of microencapsulated methionine on milk production and manure nitrogen excretions of lactating dairy cows

    The study objective was to determine the effects of rumen-protected methionine (Met) by microencapsulation (RPM) on amino acid (AA) supply to the udder, milk production, and manure nitrogen (N) losses of dairy cows.
  • An effective replacement herd is based on the optimal colostrum management

    In general, 25-30% f the herd must be replaced every year. A restocking plan aims to rear healthy heifers to replace, two years later, the culled cows, with improved production and genetic value of the herd. High-quality heifers at the best cost possible are essential to put in place this plan and maximize income.
  • Characterization of the plasma lipidome in dairy cattle transitioning from gestation to lactation: identifying novel biomarkers of metabolic impairmentCharacterization of the plasma lipidome in dairy cattle transitioning from gestation to lactation: identifying novel biomarkers of metabolic impairment

    The discovery of novel biomarkers for peripartal diseases in dairy cows can improve our understanding of normal and dysfunctional metabolism, and lead to nutritional interventions that improve health and milk production.
  • Microencapsulated sodium selenite supplementation in dairy cows: effects on selenium status

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of transfer of selenium (Se) to plasma and milk from inorganic sodium selenite, either free or microencapsulated, and from selenized yeast in dairy cows.
  • Ruminants clinical and functional nutrition by Vetagro

    Ruminants clinical and functional nutrition
  • Improved livestock sustainability through dietary protein correct management

    Global market means that every fluctuation in the raw material price has an impact on the worldwide economy and our farms. In addition to raw material price decrease, farmers often face fluctuation in milk selling prices. Economic efficiency is kept under continuous review: some fields of the livestock sector are already used to manage tight margins of profit, while dairy cows rearing has a hard time identifying its weak points.
  • Blood methionine and lysine concentration in lactation dairy cows supplemented with commercial rumen-protected methionine and lysine products

    It is well known that methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) are two of the most limiting amino acids (AA) for milk and protein production in lactating dairy cows fed corn-based diets (Schwab et al., 2003; Rulquin, 2004).
  • Is it necessary to add nicotinic acid to the dairy cow diet?

    There are different names for nicotinic acid: niacin, vitamin PP (Pellagra preventis), and vitamin B3. Vitamin B3, and its inclusion in the vitamin B group, is not quite accurate. In organisms, niacin is presented as nicotinamide and is necessary for the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADP (H)).
  • How to improve goats milk quality through nutrition

    Goats milk is frequently used for dairy and the final quality of cheese and milk-derived products depends on milk quality.
  • Fatty liver and metabolic consequences in the lactating dairy cow

    Fatty liver is a metabolic disease with high incidence in dairy cows, sheep, and buffaloes. Before calving and in the first weeks of lactation, the energy requirements of lactating ruminants are greater than the capacity of producing energy from ingested nutrients. This negative energy balance triggers a massive release of fatty acids (and amino acids) from the adipose tissue.
  • Methyl donor supplementation suppresses the progression of liver lipid accumulation while modifying the plasma triacylglycerol lipidome in periparturient Holstein dairy cows

    Co-supplementation of methyl donors may lower hepatic lipid content in transition cows.
  • The importance of an efficient transition

    The transition period, calving and the first month of lactation, are the moments of the entire production cycle of the dairy cow that involve the greatest risks. Although ketosis is a problem considered "typical" of this period, it is certainly not the only one and should be considered only as the tip of the iceberg.
  • Animal production is the only culprit

    Nowadays society pointed at animal production and intensive livestock farming as the cause of several global problems linked to animal protein: climate crisis, environmental sustainability, pollution, greenhouse gas, animal welfare, ethics, antibiotic resistance, viruses spread, diseases.
  • The transition period for small ruminants: balanced nutrition is frequently understate but makes the difference

    The transition period is extremely delicate for all ruminants, including sheep and goats. In these species, the transition starts 2-3 weeks before and lasts 2-3 weeks after calving.
  • Peripartum in dairy goats: nutritional strategies

    The transition period is the most delicate in dairy goats management, but diagnostic aids are not available yet. At the date, precise and functional nutrition is the only effective strategy to optimally face peripartum and transition periods. An accurate analysis of the real needs is mandatory to reach the goal.
  • Peripartum in dairy goats: know it to get it better

    Dairy goat breeding is slowly increasing as well as the interest in goats derived products. These animals have the same rearing problems and they are linked to milk cost and economical sustainability as dairy cows are. Goat milk is more expensive than bovine so that we can improve the return on investment in two ways: performance optimization and product valorization.
  • The importance of the dry period in dairy cows

    To dry-off a cow means stopping milking for a certain period before the next calving. Usually, this interruption is at 220 days of pregnancy to ensure 60 days of production stop. Genetic selection in the last decades and the continuous attempts to obtain a calving-fertilization period as short as possible led to dry-off cows with very high milk yield.
  • Fat-soluble vitamins: precious allies of the immune system and beyond

    The aim of clinical nutrition is to improve animal health and reducing the use of antibiotics to the bare minimum. If the immune system of dairy cows is efficient, there is a reduction in pathologies prevalence and they have a better recovery, especially for metritis and mastitis, without the use of a large amount of antibiotics.
  • Vitamin C: the endogenous synthesis is not enough

    Vitamin C is an essential molecule for humans so that its dietary intake is needed. Many animals are able to synthesize this vitamin starting from precursors such as glucose and galactose, through the glucuronic acid metabolic pathway. In ruminants, vitamin C is strongly degraded (about 60%) by rumen microflora and depends on their endogenous hepatic production.
  • The subtle (secondary) deficiency of methyl groups

    One of the most important goals of bovine genetic selection is to improve milk protein production. Thanks to this selection and to the specific nutrition, today the high genetic merit (HGM) Holstein cows produce 3% casein during winter. This extremely high protein production is causing more and more fertility and immune problems to the animals.
  • Summer low performance: reduced feed intake is not the only cause

    The perceived temperature is closely linked to the environmental one and to the relative humidity increase and increase significantly during summer. Every animal species can correctly dissipate endogenous heat to maintain the physiological temperature in a specific perceived temperature range: past this, the body temperature increases, and the animal experiences heat stress.
  • Essential fatty acids and fertility

    Lipids are among the most important component of dairy cows' diet. The high energy deriving from lipids, but most of all the dietary intake of specific fatty acids, have a positive impact on ovarian and reproductive function. They stimulate prostaglandin activity, steroid hormones synthesis from cholesterol, and insulin production.
  • Rumen protected methionine to improve buffalo milk quality

    Bovines and buffaloes are very different, there are two different typologies of reared buffaloes: swamp buffalo and river buffalo.
  • Differences between buffaloes and cows

    In “Nutrition Ecology of the Ruminant” (1982), Peter J. Van Soest introduced new nutrients that were subsequently used for the development of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS®), and accurately described the ecological position of ruminants.
  • How to improve colostrum quality

    Ruminants placenta avoids immunoglobulins transfer from the mother to the fetus (passive immunity). Calves are not protected against infections until they develop their own active immunity, except for antibodies received through colostrum.
  • Oxidative stress: the most insidious of metabolic diseases

    ATP is the fundamental energy molecule for the organism's metabolic function. Its production is derived from the oxidation of different substrates such as carbohydrates and fatty acids. ATP is like a charged battery: when the energy is finished the molecule becomes ADP and is subsequently “re-charged” into ATP.
  • Functional nutrition helps to prevent the economic losses related to the transition period

    The passage from the dry period (or the last weeks before calving in heifers) to the puerperium (the 20 days after calving) is really challenging for dairy cows. During this period (the transition period) there is a higher incidence of metabolic pathologies and of related infections.
  • Ruminants

    Ruminants need amino acids, not proteins

    In ruminant nutrition, it is still quite common to look at the general crude protein level, with only marginal attention to the amino acid content. At the same time, high CP (and carbohydrates) is accused of the increased podal diseases and mastitis, and reduced fertility (Butles, 1998; Moretti, 1991).
  • B vitamins supplementation of ruminant diets is really useful?

    Water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C and vitamins of the B group. Choline is also, improperly, inserted among these vitamins because of its certain metabolic functions and defined dosage of use. These vitamins are synthesized by the rumen and intestinal microflora and their supplementation with the diet is still debated.
  • Nutrients bioavailability

    Each feed in the diet contains different and different quantities of nutrients, molecules needed by the animal metabolism. Nutritionists balance these nutrients in the diet to fulfill the requirements of different animal species. During diet formulation, is important to consider the real nutrients bioavailability, defined as the amount of the ingested nutrients absorbed and used by the animal and its metabolism.
  • PUFA omega-3: an important help for dairy cows health and fertility

    The use of fats in ruminant nutrition is widely accepted. Fat supplementation is connected to improved milk, fat yield, better health status, and improved fertility. While there are several reasons fertility problems occur, (i.e. low pregnancy rates or ovarian cysts) a diet with higher energy will be usually suggested. To obtain this the easiest way is to increase the fat content.
  • Nutrition and heat stress of dairy cows

    Different mechanisms to reduce metabolic heat production and to increase dissipation are activated at 22°C with 40% humidity in order to maintain the body temperature constantly around 38.5°C. The first reaction is the dry matter intake reduction, to reduce rumen fermentation and the consequent heat production. Then, the animal moves less to contain the muscles' heat.
  • What about hepatic function?

    Fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) is the most frequent metabolic pathology for dairy cows and high producing sheep, goats, and buffalo. The incidence is higher for high genetic value animals, because of the high requirement of nutrients of the udder and the insulin resistance that most of them experience.
  • The potential offered to ruminants by clinical and functional nutrition

    The genetic selection of animals bred to produce meat or milk has profoundly changed their metabolism.